In early efficacy studies, the model which we use most frequently is acute myocardial infarction – either ischemia by itself or ischemia reperfusion.

Heart failure results from acute/chronic targeted ischemia.

May be accompanied by arrhythmia/dyskinesia.

Myocardial infarct of selected size between 0 to 35%.

Decreased cardiac output associated with decreased fractional shortening (approx. 30-50%) and decreased aortic Vmax.

Detectable within 24h post MI/IR by echocardiography.



Surgical ligation of LAD with or without reperfusion. Ligation can be permanent or last for a fixed time (30, 60, 90 minutes, etc.).

Study outcome

Cardiac echography (ultrasound)

Biomarkers (tropins, CKMB, ANP, NT-Pro-BNP)

Invasive hemodynamics (BP, HR, ECG, P-V Loop)


Major limitations

Area-at-risk cannot exceed 35% of LV area

Dany Salvail

Ph.D., Vice-President.

“From running the experiments myself to designing them to be run by others, the initial steps have always been my favourite. Those moments when a sponsor explains the challenge he/she/they are facing, and together we brainstorm to assemble a solution. Eventually, a ground-breaking idea—a parameter, a test, something—comes to mind, which crystallizes the solution. At that point, we both know that this idea changes everything: it collapses obstacles and opens the path forward. That moment has remained one of my greatest motivators throughout the years.” Dan’s undergrad studies in Biochemistry (Bishop’s University) were followed by graduate studies in Thoracic Physiology (Université de Sherbrooke). Dan’s post-graduate work was in Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Cardiology.